Disease Reports of Note During Q3 2018

The following is a selection of reports through the press. This does not include all outbreaks. It should be noted that more reports will be expected from countries with better surveillance systems and frequency of reporting does not provide an indication of prevalence.

During this quarter:

Measles
The World Health Organization (WHO) reported more than 41,000 measles cases across Europe during the first half of 2018 – more than in all 12-month periods so far this decade - including 37 deaths. It is essential to keep vaccinating against diseases where possible. Vaccines save lives.

West Nile fever (WNF)
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have reported that the number of human cases of West Nile fever (WNF) are up three-fold compared to previous years, with a total of 948 cases so far this year.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
As of August 2018, the total global number of laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV reported to WHO since 2012 is 2249, including 798 MERS-CoV associated deaths.

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Africa Asia Oceania Europe Middle East North America South America

Africa

Chad World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reported African swine fever (ASF), 201 domestic swine affected.
Gambia OIE reported foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle, 440 cases.
Guinea OIE reported foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).  Serotype not yet established.  In total, 42 outbreaks reported across the country.
Guinea Bissau OIE reported foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), serotype O, 1176 cases identified in cattle.
Kenya Reports of an ongoing outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since May 2018, with four more RVF cases reported, raising the outbreak total as of July 4, 2018 to 94, 20 of them confirmed. Ten deaths have been reported. Illnesses have been reported in three counties: Wajir, Marsabit, and Siaya.
Malawi The Malawian government confirmed 217 cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a new outbreak in the Lilongwe area.
Namibia OIE reported contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), 34 cases have been identified.
Nigeria Since the re-emergence of Monkeypox in Nigeria in September 2017, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has continued to receive reports and respond to cases of the disease from states across the country. Between September 2017 when the outbreak started, and August 31, 2018, a total of 262 suspected cases had been reported from 26 states. Of these, 113 have been confirmed in 16 states with 7 deaths. The highest number of cases has been reported from states in the South South region of Nigeria.
Rwanda OIE reported Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Rwanda; the disease has been reported in animals along with suspected human cases. Radio announcements are being used to inform the public. The disease is present in animals, along with suspected human cases.
Sierra Leone OIE reported peste des petits ruminants (PPR). The source is considered to be illegal movement of animals followed by contact at grazing/watering.
Sierra Leone OIE reported foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), 2 outbreaks in cattle, 1200 animals affected.
Sudan High prevalence of African horse sickness (AHS) exposure found in Central Sudan horses. Evidence of exposure to the African horse sickness virus (AHSV) was found in more than 85 percent of horses enrolled in a study in a region of Sudan: The study team found that 275 of the 320 horses (85.9%) carried antibodies indicating previous exposure to the potentially deadly virus.
Swaziland OIE reported Varroosis of honey bees in Swaziland. The mites were identified during surveillance for hive beetles.
Uganda More than 1000 animals have died following the outbreak of anthrax in Arua District. The district’s veterinary authorities have recorded 28 people infected and 2 deaths.
Uganda Reports received of an outbreak of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Bulambuli, affecting 300 cows. The authorities acknowledge that vaccination with attenuated virus in time controls LSD, but struggle with a low response from farmers.
Uganda Three Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks were reported in three separate south-western districts. Reports include RVF outbreak in Lyantonde district, where 11 people died and others are in critical condition. There is concern that cases are being contracted from eating infected meat from infected cows, sheep, and goats. The outbreaks in Uganda, Rwanda, and Kenya pose a threat to other countries in the region, especially East Africa, which is experiencing heavy rains, according to the WHO.
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Asia

Cambodia OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, 318 birds affected.
China OIE reported foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in China Guangdong, serotype O, 32 cases in swine.
China Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype O has been reported in a herd of cattle transported to the Xinjiang region from Gansu province, 63 cases.
China OIE reported foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), serotype O, affecting Inner Mongolia, 11 cases in cattle.
China OIE reported the first-ever case of African swine fever (ASF), outbreak identified in Shenyang.
China OIE reported a new case of African swine fever (ASF) in Henan.
China OIE reported a new case of African swine fever (ASF) in Zhejiang.
China OIE reported new cases of African swine fever (ASF) identified in Anhui, 185 pigs affected.
China OIE reported African swine fever (ASF) in Heilongjiang. The local government launched the African swine fever contingency plan and emergency response according to the Standard & Protocol for African swine fever. All live pigs and animal products were prohibited to enter and exit the area.
China OIE reported new African swine fever (ASF) in Inner Mongolia.
China OIE reported African swine fever (ASF) in Jilin. ASF was detected in China in early August 2018, and has been found in 18 farms or abattoirs in 6 provinces, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
China OIE reported glanders.
China Human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.
China OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 in Guizhou.
India An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has killed more than 100 cows and calves in West Bengal.
Japan OIE reported Classical swine fever (CSF) in Gifu, 29 pigs affected. The cause of the outbreak has not been determined. Movement restrictions and stamping out is in place. The disease was declared eradicated in 2007 and there has not been an outbreak in the country since 1992.
Korea, South A 61-year-old man is being treated for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) after returning from a trip to Kuwait.
Kyrgyzstan The OIE reported anthrax, affecting cattle.
Malaysia OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, 3000 cases detected.
Taiwan OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5.
Vietnam OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, 3090 cases detected.
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Europe

Austria OIE reported brucellosis Brucella Melitensis in Austria, 74 cases in cattle.
Belgium OIE reported Newcastle disease in Belgium, the first report of the disease in the country since 2010. Susceptible birds (3648) were disposed.
Belgium OIE reported African swine fever (ASF) in Belgium, discovered in wild boar in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. This is a major and significant finding: the virus has been detected for the first time since 1985. Coordinated actions between the various levels of power were taken to prevent a possible spread of the virus at the level of wildlife (regions) and pig farms (federal). Following the initial outbreak, 3 new cases were found in the same area of Etalle and confirmed carriers of the virus, bringing the number of ASF-infected, dead wild boars to five.
Bulgaria OIE reported African swine fever (ASF), the first occurrence of the disease in the country.
Croatia OIE reported bovine anaplasmosis. This is the first case officially confirmed in Croatia and was identified during routine passive surveillance.
Croatia OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF).  An unusual level of mortality was observed in a group of Blackbirds; approx. 30 to 50 birds died.
Denmark OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6; an Eider was infected and is not affecting poultry.
France OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF), equine cases, 2 outbreaks.
Germany OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF) in Germany, 2 cases identified in a Great Grey Owl in Sachsen-Anhalt.
Germany OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 non-poultry in Germany.
Germany OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF) in Bayern, identified in a great grey owl.
Germany OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF) in Berlin, identified in a Snowy Owl.
Germany OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF) identified in Sachsen, discovered in Northern Goshawk.
Germany OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF) in a horse in Brandenburg.
Germany OIE report West Nile fever (WNF) in a Thrush, found in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Greece OIE reported subclinical West Nile fever (WNF), discovered during routine surveillance.
Greece Reports of two human deaths from West Nile fever (WNF).
Italy OIE reported anthrax, affecting goats.
Italy Four people have died from West Nile fever (WNF) in Veneto, a north-eastern region of Italy, and 84 infected.
Kazakhstan OIE reported Newcastle disease, 5 birds affected in North Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan OIE reported anthrax, affecting cattle, 2 cases identified in East Kazakhstan.
Macedonia OIE reported infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) affecting trout in Former Yug Rep Macedonia.
Moldova OIE reported African swine fever (ASF), outbreak in swine, U.T.A. Gagauzia.
Moldova OIE reported African swine fever (ASF), 4 outbreaks in Stefan-Voda, cases in swine.
Netherlands OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 non-poultry. This is not the Asian zoonotic H5N6, but a re-assortment, and was identified in a Mallard.
Netherlands A 48-year-old woman in Alkmaar was diagnosed with anthrax after returning from holiday in Tanzania, where she had visited a local tribe had shared food with them, including raw root vegetables.
Norway OIE reported rabies, identified in a reindeer.
Romania OIE reported bovine babesiosis (BB) Babesia, 4 outbreaks in cattle.
Romania OIE reported African swine fever (ASF). Cases in swine have been reported in various places and regions for the first time.
Romania OIE reported African swine fever (ASF), in Constanta.
Romania OIE reported African swine fever (ASF), outbreak in Bihor, 57 cases.
Romania OIE reported new case of African swine fever (ASF), outbreak in Galati.
Romania OIE reported African swine fever (ASF) in Dimbovita.
Romania Romania national food safety authority have confirmed African swine fever (ASF) at the country’s largest pig breeding farm; 140,000 animals will be culled.
Romania Reports from Romania veterinary authority indicate over 500 outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) in the last year.
Romania OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF), equine cases detected on a farm.
Russia OIE reported new case of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) in the Samarskaya Oblast.
Russia OIE reported classical swine fever (CSF) in the Moskovskaya Oblast region.
Russia OIE reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Russia; the isolate belongs to the Asian genetic lineage of highly pathogenic avian influenza (Clade 2.3.4.4.).
Russia OIE reported sheep and goat pox (SGPX) in Russia. 
Russia OIE reported anthrax in cattle.
Slovenia Reports of two people with West Nile fever (WNF), bringing the number of human cases in the country to 3 this year.
Slovenia OIE reported West Nile fever (WNF) virus identified in crow.
Spain OIE reported myxomatosis. Unusual increase in mortality in hares.
Turkey Anthrax outbreak in a southeastern province of Bitlis that has been quarantined after more than 100 cattle died.
Turkey Six out of 48 people from the Silivri Istanbul district, who had been in contact with anthrax animals have been found to develop symptoms, skin lesions. The patients have been released after treatment.
Turkey Three villages in Turkey's northwestern province of Kocaeli were quarantined after anthrax was diagnosed in cattle on a local farm. Anthrax was first found in cattle imported from Brazil, causing the death of 50 cattle on a farm in Ankara province. Hospitals in İstanbul and Sivas also detected anthrax in 9 people who were sent for medical screening.
Ukraine OIE reported African swine fever (ASF), in Nikolayev.
Ukraine OIE reported new case of African swine fever (ASF) in Ukraine.
United Kingdom Reports of a Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) case.  This is the fifth case reported in the country and was found in a Saudi Arabia resident suspected of being infected before travel to the United Kingdom.
United Kingdom Public Health England (PHE) announced Britain's first-ever case of monkeypox in a human. The patient is a resident of Nigeria, which is where they are believed to have contracted the infection, before traveling to the UK.
United Kingdom Public Health England (PHE) confirmed a second case of monkeypox in the UK.  The patient had returned from Nigeria and there is no indication of a UK connection between the two patients.
United Kingdom Bluetongue virus (BTV) has been evidenced during routine surveillance in two cows imported from France.
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Middle East

Israel OIE reported foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle. The case, detected in Hazafon district, has been identified as serotype O.
Saudi Arabia There have been nine newly-confirmed human cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection since September 1, 2018. One was reported to have had contact in a renal dialysis unit, and one other had a history of contact with a camel.
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North America

Canada Koi herpesvirus (KHV) detected in Cypress County, Alberta.
Canada The Regional Municipality of Niagara authorities confirmed two cases of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Both horses were unvaccinated and had no travel history.
USA – California OIE reported a virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), found as part of enhanced surveillance. The virus was detected in a live bird market. The disease has been found at a total of 117 properties in Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, and Ventura counties.
USA – California Animal health officials confirmed another equine case of West Nile virus (WNV). So far in 2018, 7 confirmed cases of WNV have been found in California horses.
USA – Florida OIE reported bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).  This was identified through the targeted surveillance program and is categorized as H-type atypical BSE. The animal did not enter the food chain and there is no human risk.            
USA – Maryland Reports from Prince George’s County Health Department of a human case of West Nile fever (WNF).
USA – Colorado Lanier County reported their first human case of West Nile fever (WNF) in 2018.
USA – Colorado Reports of two human cases of West Nile fever (WNF).
USA – Colorado A horse tested positive for equine infectious anemia (EIA).
USA – Louisiana Human cases of West Nile Fever (WNF) reported.
USA – Maine A horse in York County tested positive for the mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV).
USA – Michigan A woman died after being exposed to rabies. The source of disease has not been identified.
USA – Montana Report of two equine cases of West Nile fever (WNF).
USA – New Jersey A 10-year-old Burlington County mare was the first reported case of West Nile virus (WNV). The horse had not been vaccinated against WNV in 2018.
USA – Ohio Reports of two human cases of West Nile fever (WNF) in Clark County, Ohio, the first cases in the county this year.
USA – Texas Human cases of West Nile fever (WNF) reported.
USA – Utah Utah's first human case of West Nile fever (WNF) of 2018 reported in Utah County.
USA – Virginia A 9-year-old pony in Fauquire County tested positive for the West Nile virus (WNV).
USA – Wisconsin First human case of West Nile Virus (WNV) reported in Waukesha County.
USA OIE reported low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N3, found during pre-slaughter testing and surveillance in a commercial meat-type turkey flock.
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Oceania

No reports available at this time.
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South America

Colombia OIE reported equine influenza, H3N8, in a total of 245 outbreaks across the country.
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