Disease Reports of Note During Q1 2018

The following is a selection of reports through the press.  This does not include all outbreaks.  It should be noted that more reports will be expected from countries with better surveillance systems and frequency of reporting does not provide an indication of prevalence.

During this quarter:

Vaccination leads to fall in outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD)
A report published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) gives an update on the occurrence of LSD in the Balkan region: the number of outbreaks fell by 95% in 2017, reinforcing the EFSA’s recommendation that vaccination of cattle is the most effective way to contain the disease.

Annual review of priority diseases
In March, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a new annual report identifying the top 10 pathogens that pose greatest risk to public health in 2018 because of their epidemic potential and often insufficient countermeasures. The report raised concerns about the spill-over of infectious diseases from animal populations to humans, stressing the value of a ‘One Health’ approach. This approach would include prioritisation of animal health concerns and acknowledgment of the role of animal vaccines in addressing and preventing public health emergencies.

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Africa Asia Oceania Europe Middle East North America South America

Africa

Burundi OIE report peste des petits ruminants (PPR) outbreak; first occurrence of the disease in the country, morbidity 9.27%, mortality 4.64% (case fatality ~50%).
Kenya The authorities issued an alert on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) after continued outbreaks across the country. The disease was detected in the country in 2017, and it spread into 26 counties and has continued since then. Some of the outbreaks are linked to an apparent new variant of serotype O that has not been detected in the country but is in circulation in neighbouring countries.
Mozambique OIE report foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).
South Africa Reports of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in 3 penguins at the Boulders Penguin Colony in Simon's Town.
South Sudan The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries have declared a Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in the Eastern Lakes State. The outbreak was reported by the OIE as first occurrence of the disease in the country.
Zimbabwe Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) detected, reported by the OIE, as yet untyped.
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Asia

Bhutan OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The affected birds had been brought in illegally and were kept in a confined area.
China World’s first ever human case of avian influenza H7N4 reported: a 68-year-old female developed symptoms of bird flu after having contact with live poultry.
China An outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was confirmed in Prey Veng province. According to the official report, 56 people fell ill from bird flu from 2005 to 2014, of which 37 died.
China OIE report serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), found in pigs.
China OIE report serotype A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), detected in cattle.
China OIE report serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Xingqing District.
China OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 in Hong Kong, subclinical, identified through surveillance.
India OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, identified in a crow.
India OIE report subclinical highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1.
Indonesia OIE report glanders; first report of disease in country.
Japan OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, detected on a domestic broilers farm.
Kazakhstan OIE report rabies.
Korea OIE report foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype O.
Moldova OIE report African swine fever (ASF).
Nepal OIE report foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Asia1 outbreak, cattle and buffalo affected.
Pakistan OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8, this is a non-poultry case involving red-and-green macaws.
South Korea Reports of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) on a pig farm.
Taiwan OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 subclinical infection reported in Chinese Taipei, identified during active surveillance on a duck farm.
Thailand There have been 400 confirmed cases of rabies in animals across the country since the beginning of the year, according to the Department of Livestock Development (DLD), double the number over the same period in 2017. The virus has been detected in 40 provinces, including popular tourist areas Bangkok and Chiang Rai, and has killed six people in the first three months of this year. DLD plan to vaccinate "more than 80% of dogs and cats" in the country and eliminate rabies by 2020.
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Europe

Armenia OIE report bovine tuberculosis (BTB) identified for the first time since 2008.
Balkans The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports a drop in outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in the Balkan region by 95% from 7,483 in 2016 to 385 in 2017. The majority of outbreaks in 2017 – 379 – were reported in Albania, where the vaccination programme was not yet completed. Despite the significant drop in occurrence, LSD has not yet been eliminated from the region, and EFSA confirms that vaccination of cattle is the most effective way to contain the disease.  
Bulgaria OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5, with 25% mortality rate.
France OIE report equine infectious anaemia (EIA). This is the first occurrence of the disease in the country.
France Sharp rise in measles cases. Cases occurring in communities with low vaccination coverage, and severe cases and fatalities have occurred in people who were not vaccinated. This emphasizes the importance of vaccination at both an individual and community level.
France OIE report Aujeszky's disease, contact with wild boars suspected.
France OIE report low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N5 outbreak.
France OIE report low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N1 outbreak.
Germany OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 in wild birds.
Ireland OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 in non-poultry wild birds. Identified in a white-tailed eagle.
Italy Anthrax case reported by the OIE.
Latvia OIE report new cases of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boar.
Netherlands OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 in Groningen. Protection and surveillance zones established.
Romania OIE report African swine fever (ASF), found in backyard pigs.
Slovakia OIE report equine infectious anaemia (EIA).
Slovakia OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6. This was a non-poultry case; the virus was identified in a black-headed gull.         
Sweden OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, discovered in a buzzard.  As this does not involve poultry, there is no change to the country’s disease-free status.
Ukraine Several outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) reported by the OIE, including in wild boar.
United Kingdom OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, non-poultry, detected in mute swan.
United Kingdom Animal & Plant Health Agency (APHA) report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 in wild birds in Dorset, first confirmation of the virus in the UK this winter.
United Kingdom OIE report epizootic ulcerative syndrome found for the first time in the country.
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Middle East

Afghanistan OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 detected in a rook.
Iran OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, detected in non-poultry wild birds in a region where migratory birds overwinter.
Iraq OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8.
Israel OIE report new distribution of rabies, large outbreak in the north of the country, majority of cases in jackals but also cats, dogs, cattle, and one sheep.
Israel OIE report bovine tuberculosis (BTB), the source of the infection is considered to be a foreign worker.
Israel OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8, found in a Eurasian eagle-owl.
Lebanon OIE report a case of rabies, the dog was infected after apparently coming in contact with a wild animal.
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North America

Canada H3N2 canine influenza reported. The dogs were imported from South Korea and travelled through the USA.
Canada OIE report rabbit haemorrhagic disease outbreak, after laboratory investigation of feral rabbits dying in British Columbia.
Mexico OIE report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3, focal zones and perifocal zones established.
USA OIE report low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) detected in USA, affecting a commercial broiler breeder flock.
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Oceania

New Zealand Further spread of Mycoplasma bovis, with 27 properties infected.
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South America

Chile OIE report unexpected increase in number of horses affected by equine influenza.
Peru OIE report tilapia lake virus.
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