Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) - Emergence - Your Guide to Transboundary & Emerging Diseases
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Total Reported Outbreaks
Total Affected Countries
Total Affected Species
Key Facts
Clinical Signs
Treatment and Management
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle, sheep and pigs.

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Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)

FMD is endemic in various parts of the world, whilst others are FMD-free (e.g. Europe and North America) or working towards eradication (e.g. South America).  Find out where the latest reported outbreaks are with this map. 

Key Facts
Clinical Signs

FMD is a very painful disease that causes blisters and sores on feet, in the mouth and on teats. Other clinical signs include fever, depression, anorexia, lower milk production, salivation, lameness and abortion. There are differences in clinical signs between affected species.


As a viral disease, there is no specific and effective treatment for FMD-infected animals. Control and prevention methods, such as biosecurity, vaccination and movement restrictions are important.


Biosecurity is critical in the control and prevention of FMD. This is because the FMD virus is very contagious, which is because it is very persistent in the environment, only requires small amounts to infect animals, and is produced in large amounts by those that become infected. Prompt reporting of possible outbreaks and animal movement restrictions are also important in stopping the spread of FMD.

Cattle in a field
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Focus On… Tracking the movement of livestock – developing strategic interventions for infectious disease control in East Africa
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Focus On... The Vital Role of Animal Traceability in Controlling Livestock Diseases
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