Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) - Emergence - Your Guide to Transboundary & Emerging Diseases
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45
Total Reported Outbreaks
16
Total Affected Countries
1
Total Affected Species
Key Facts
Clinical Signs
Treatment and Management
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Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an OIE-listed notifiable disease caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). It affects cattle and water buffalo, damaging animal health and causing significant production and trade losses.

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Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD)

LSD has been spreading into different regions and countries in recent years and continues to move. Find out where the latest reported outbreaks are with this map.  

Key Facts
Clinical Signs

As the disease name suggests, affected animals typically develop skin nodules or lumps, which can occur all over the body and vary in size. Other clinical signs include fever, general malaise, ocular and nasal discharge, and sudden decrease in milk production. As these are non-specific, outbreaks of LSD may not be detected quickly enabling it to spread further. Morbidity and mortality may vary between 10-20% and 1-5% respectively (OIE Technical Card, July 2017), and the severity of disease in those affected varies from mild to fatal. LSD outbreaks have a huge impact on the farming industry because they lead to significant production losses. They also cause serious damage to trade because of major restrictions for the export of live cattle, milk and meat products, skins and hides.

Treatment

LSD is caused by a virus which means that there is no specific treatment. Control of LSD must focus on prevention, including vaccination.

Management

In the event of outbreaks in disease-free countries then slaughter of infected and in-contact animals plus movement restrictions may be considered. However, this relies on detecting the disease very early and putting such controls in place very quickly. As this is expensive and may not be practically achievable, vaccination with a good quality vaccine is recommended.

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Focus On… Life as a Vet in Research – Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Almost 15 years ago, when I graduated as a veterinary surgeon, I never envisioned that I would be researching within infectious diseases… I was going to be a large animal…
Latest Articles and Events
Knowledge Hub
Podcast Episode 3 - 2021 - The One About Lumpy Skin and Flies
A talk with Dr Pip Beard of the Pirbright Institute about their recent findings on the transmission of Lumpy Skin Disease. Terminology: BBSRC - Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council LSD - Lumpy Skin Disease OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health Link to paper - https://jvi.asm.org/content/95/9/e02239-20
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A Spring of Change
Change can be challenging, but together, as a community, we can support each other and reach our goal of One Health One Welfare.
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Unraveling the Transmission of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus
Discovering the transmission dynamics of a virus is instrumental to truly understanding epidemiology of a disease and helps pave the path towards successful evidence-based control programs. We are excited to have supported a project from The Pirbright Institute that was looking to uncover the transmission mechanisms of the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The study, led by Dr. Beatriz Sanz‐Bernardo, has just achieved a breakthrough and we are pleased to share that the results were published under supervision of Dr. Pip Beard, and co-authored by John Atkinson of International Veterinary Health. Read the paper: Quantifying and modelling the acquisition and retention of lumpy skin disease virus by haematophagus insects reveals clinically but not subclinically-affected cattle are promoters of viral transmission and key targets for control of disease outbreaks. Dr. Alasdair King, Director International Veterinary Health, about the significance of the findings: “Lumpy skin disease has rapidly spread around a lot of the world and is causing significant One Health issues through its impact on cattle, on trade, and food security.  And yet, until recently little has been known about the routes of transmission. This research has been groundbreaking and will improve control of the disease for the future.” The research shows that LSDV infected cattle without clinical signs of the disease pose a low risk for transmission because it is unlikely that insects acquire the virus when biting these animals. This knowledge will help further improve strategies to manage outbreaks of this devastating disease. Read more in the press release from Pirbright here. If you want to hear more about the study listen to the emergence podcast – our guest Dr. Pip Beard shares her thoughts about this fascinating discovery in this episode: The One About Lumpy Skin and Flies.
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Podcast Episode 2 - 2021 - The One About Paraprofessionals
A discussion with Mr Benson Ameda about the role of paraprofessionals for animal health in Africa. Acronyms: OIE: World Organisation for Animal Health SDG: Sustainable Development Goals
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Focus On... The Vital Role of Animal Traceability in Controlling Livestock Diseases
The implementation of effective biosecurity policies across the food chain has become increasingly vital to control the spread of livestock diseases and ensure the wellbeing of animals and humans alike around the world. The main prerequisite for such policies is livestock identification, as this enables the tracking and monitoring of all livestock movement over their lifetime. Traceability depends on identification For animal protein products (predominantly beef, pork, poultry, seafood, and dairy products), there is an abundance of food traceability programs around the world that take varying approaches and utilize a wide array of technologies. Regardless of the program, having a unique identifying tag that is associated with an animal from birth and cannot be easily removed is fundamental for them all. Cattle wearing Allflex Livestock Intelligence EID tag. Increasingly, livestock identification is seen as vital for food biosecurity. There were major uptakes in livestock identification requirements following disease crises, such as the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease) epidemic in the 1980s and 1990s and the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the UK in the early 2000s. Just a couple of years ago, African Swine Fever (ASF) outbreaks had a devastating impact on farmers in China, and the epidemic also affected domestic and wild pigs in other countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. In all these cases, the rudimentary information available on animal movement resulted in wide-swath culling. While instrumental in containing the disease and protecting consumers, the culling programs had severe effects on farmers’ businesses, national economies and food supply far beyond the geographic borders of the outbreak. Identification is just the start For food biosecurity, knowing the identity of an animal is not enough; it is vital to also know where that animal has been during every stage of its life. With basic livestock identification, it is possible to have a general idea of an animal’s movements over its lifetime. But combining identification with tissue sampling, diagnostic services, geolocation, and DNA profiling enables full traceability. And, once you have full traceability, then disease outbreaks can be contained faster, easier and with far less culling. Ideally, all stakeholders in the supply chain – from farmers to food producers, retailers, local councils and governments – should take collective responsibility for implementing such measures at the farm, regional, and national levels. In the case of farmers, biosecurity practices include the standardizing of hygiene procedures both onsite and offsite, the setting up of protection and surveillance zones, and the implementation of methods to identify, control, monitor, and record all livestock movements from birth. At the regional or national level, industry authorities, local councils, and governments can mandate biosecurity standards, policies, and systems that enforce compulsory identification, monitoring, and control measures for tracking the movement of farm animals from the time they are born and ensuring their lifetime traceability. Sheep wearing the Allflex Livestock Intelligence EID tags Digitization will be key The effective implementation of such livestock traceability systems requires the creation of a smart environment that integrates agriculture with digital solutions. This facilitates the tracking and monitoring of all livestock movement, as well as the collection of this data so that it can be easily accessed when the need arises. One potential approach is to develop comprehensive electronic identification and monitoring systems that integrate electronic identification tags with readers at more locations, making it possible to automatically collect livestock data from multiple sources into centralized and cloud-based national databases. This will facilitate full traceability for every animal from the time it is born. Highly valuable data can then be made available to farmers, local authorities, veterinarians, slaughterhouses, producers, retailers, and others in the food supply chain, and even consumers – for full transparency about the origins and health profiles of all livestock and related food products. The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of MSD Animal Health.
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Welcoming 2021
Welcome to a new edition of emergence and the beginning of a new year.  This always seems a natural time to reflect, both on what has happened in the last year and also on hopes for the coming one. Welcome to a new edition of emergence and the beginning of a new year.  This always seems a natural time to reflect, both on what has happened in the last year and also on hopes for the coming one. Last year was a complex one for transboundary and emerging diseases.  The pandemic brought the issue of One Health diseases to the fore, and this has had an important impact on how the world focuses on controlling these diseases.  However, it also meant a lot of funds were diverted from on-going control programs in order to deal with the emergency.  This could mean that, in the short-term, we are going to see a resurgence of certain viruses. What is clear is that we need to get better with our surveillance, both of the known diseases and of those emerging in the human:animal interface.  And this is where technology is coming in to play.  There are a lot of exciting developments that could change our knowledge and ability to predict where our focus needs to be.  Drones not only allow us to start delivering vaccines to areas previously difficult to access, but they can also be used for animal surveillance, helping us to learn more about animal numbers and movements, both domestic and wildlife.  Social media platforms allow us to hear people’s voices and to see new disease outbreaks in real time.  Improved animal tracking helps us follow not just where animals have come from, but also to retrospectively go back and find the nodes from where disease spreads.  These are exciting times. For the International Veterinary Health Team, innovation is a driver.  It is part of our everyday intent to discover improved ways of bringing you information.  The emergence podcast has allowed us to have interviews with experts, the new website is more interactive than ever, we hosted a virtual stand at the EuFMD OS20 meeting, and we started the Rabies 360 Challenge to leverage social media in raising awareness to rabies. Reach out to us with suggestions of topics you would like covered on the podcast and on the website.  We want to bring you the information that you need, and the best way for us to ensure that is by hearing from you. We will continue to look at new technologies and to explore just how they can help us all in the One Health community to bring improved health and welfare to animals and humans alike.  This is our commitment in looking forward to this year.
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Report - 2020 - Introduction and spread of lumpy skin disease in South, East and Southeast Asia
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Lumpy Skin Disease: Free Online Training Module
Following recent outbreaks in a number of countries across Asia, the EuFMD has made available a new 'taster' training module on lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle. The availability of such high quality training courses is invaluable to help stop the spread of this serious disease which damages the health and welfare of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of those that depend on them. ENROL FOR THE FREE 'INTRODUCTION TO LUMPY SKIN DISEASE' TRAINING COURSE Excerpt from EuFMD website:This short, self-directed, online module has been made available to support animal health practitioners in those countries in the Asia and Pacific region which are currently affected by, or at risk of lumpy skin disease (LSD).These activities are organized by EuFMD and the FAO Virtual Learning Centre for Asia and the Pacific, working with the World Organisation for Animal Health ( OIE), Regional Representation for Asia and the Pacific. The LSD Preparedness Course was developed under a partnership between EuFMD, the FAO Regional Office for Europe and the Friedrich-Loeffler Institut. Photographs: John Atkinson Explore these links for more information about lumpy skin disease:LISTEN: Click here to listen to Dr Daniel Beltran-Alcrudo, FAO Technical Advisor (Animal Health), discuss LSD and the FAO's training courses.READ: the LSD disease page on the emergence website.SEARCH: the resources in the emergence Knowledge Hub, which includes this qualitative risk assessment by FAO on LSD Introduction and Spread in Asia.
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